Introduction : Urine is the Excreted product of the body formed by the kindly. The normal urine is formed by the glomerular filtration, tubular, reabsorption and tubular excretion
Introduction : Indicator of urine analisis :-

1.         To diagnosis nephritic syndromes.
2.         To diagnosis diabetes mediation.
3.         To detect the type of jaundice.
4.         To detect urinary tract infection.
5.         To diagnosis pregnancy.

Composition : Tests for normal constituents of urine :-
                          Physical examination :
a.         Volume            : 1200-1500 ml/24 hours.
b.         Colour              : Straw or pale yellow.
c.         Appearance      : Transparent.
d.         Reaction           : Usually acidic ( 6.4-6.8 )
e.         Specific            : 1.003-1.030
Composition :
a. Water           : 1200ml/day
b. Solid            : 60gm/day
c. Organic        : 5gm/day
d. Inorganic      : 25/day
Inorganic ( Daily excretion in gm )           
Orgonic ( gm/24 hours )Catior         
Chemical examination :
                                 a. Collection of Urine sample
                                 b. Deter Mention of specific gravity,
Specific Gravity of urine is Determined by :-
1. test for cl : 2ml of
2. Test for PO4-3 :
Heat coagulation test:2/3 of test tube is filled with urine & upper part of its heated.
4. molybded solution & a few drop of HNO3 acid is added & heated carefully.6. Test for urwa : 2ml of urine is taken in test tube. Then 3ml of saturated solution of Na0h & 2ml of Bromine water are added to it. 8.Test for uric acid : Small amount of urine is taken on a porecelin basin, 3 drops of concent-rated Hiv03 is added to it. It is carefully evaporated to lryness on a water bath or over a low flame. After being added 1 Drop of very diluted Nh40h is added to it.Observation :  
1.Precipitation of white is AgNo3 formed that is soluble in  NH4O.2. Turbidity appears but disappears when little amount of glacial acltic acid is added.          3. Yellowish precipitation phosphor molybded is 4. fondled5. White precipitation of SO4-2 & PO4-3 Appears. PO4-3 being dissolved with HCL.6. Effervescence of nitrogen is present.7. A ruby red colour appears which turns yellow by adding acltic acid  & it become green on heating. Orange or red colour appear which turns to yellow on addition of acltic acid (dew to formation of creatine picrate )
8. -------------------Interance  :  
1.Cl is present.2. PO4-3 is present.3. PO4-3 is present4. ------------5. SO4-2 is Present.6. Urea is present in urine 7.Creatinine is present
8. Uric acid present Urine.


Principle: SGPT converts alanine & xketoglutarate to pyruvate & glutamate. The pyruvate which is formal is measured in its derivatives form 2,4 dinitrophenyl  hydrazine.
Alanine + x-ketoglutarateSGPT pyruvate & glutamate
Pyruvate + 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine -----?
             2,4- dinitrophenyl hydrazine.
Method: Reitman & frankles method.

a.    Reagent II : ALT/SGPT
Composition: alamine
        Phosphate buffer
Reagent II:
Composition: 2,4- dinitrophenyl hydrazine
Reagent IV: pyruvate standard.
b.    Apparatus:
                     test tube
                     Centrifuge machine
                     Blood tournicate
                     Disposable syringe
Sample: serum
Arranged five cuvette and marked them 1,2,3,4,5
Addition sequence        1                2                 3                 4                5
Enzymatic activity        O U/ml       25u/ml         50u/ml          83u/ml        120u/ml
Distilled water               100ml        100ml          100ml           100ml         100ml
Reagent II                     500ml        450ml          400ml            350ml        300ml
Reagent IV                    0ml            50ml         100ml             150ml        200ml
Reagent III                     500ml        500ml        500ml             500ml        500ml
Mixed towel & allowed to stand at room temperature for 20 minutes.
                1             2             3            4              5
Na0H        5000ml    5000ml    5000ml    5000ml    5000ml
Mixed well &allowed stand at roomtemprature for 5 minutes & measure the absorbance of cubettes 2-5, against 1.plot the graph of the absorbance of cuvette on the y axis vs the corresponding enzyme activity on x-axis.
Arrange one cuvette & marked them test.
Additional sequence – test
Reagent II        -   500ml
Theem incuvetted for 5 minutes at 37oC
Serum    - 100ml
Mixed & incuvetted well for 30 minutes at 37oC.
Reagent III    - 500ml
Mixed well and allowed to stand at room temperature for 20 minutes.
Na0H        - 500ml.
Measured the absorbance of test against distilled water & read the enzymatic activity.the supplied sample from the calibration curved ploted carlier.
Wavelength           : 505nm
Optical pathway     : 1cm
Temperature          : 37oC at roomtemparature.
Measured against distilled water.
Name of the student     : abv musabbin
Age                             : 20
sex                              : male
Alt level is                    : 47.5u/ml
Normal level is              : 45u/ml
Comment: ALT level is above normal.
1.    Blood should be drawn with aceptic precaution.
2.    Centrifugation should be completed properl.
3.    Appropriate filter should be used.